Propolis got its name from the Greek πρόπολις - bee glue, propolis. By means of propolis bees cover the cracks in the hive. Also, with the help of this substance, the beehive entrance is blocked. Beehive entrance is called the entrance to the hive. Sometimes there is a need to close it. Propolis provides closure of honeycombs. This clogging is called comb capping. Propolis has a disinfecting effect on the cells. It provides a sterile state of the hive. If any objects come from the outside, they are covered with propolis as a means of disinfection.
In a bee family, only a couple dozen bees are collecting it. Usually, not more than two hundred grams of propolis is produced by one swarm per season, although some breeds can yield more than four hundred grams of useful substance. From the hive it is extracted with a chisel. By this adaptation, the finished natural product is scraped off the walls and internal partitions of the bee dwelling.
The physical form of propolis
Propolis, or bee glue, is a sticky substance, from brown to dark green, produced by bees from resinous matter of vegetable origin. Bees collect them from buds, branches and leaves of poplar, birch, aspen, ash. The bees are processing vegetable gum with salivary secretions, by adding wax and pollen in a ratio of two to one. The smell of propolis depends on vegetable gum, essential oils and wax. Propolis can be practically odor-free, but in most cases it has a specific acute aroma, reminiscent to some extent, the smell of honey and wax, poplar and birch buds, vanillin. The taste of propolis is bitter, burning, astringent. During combustion produces a typical smell of incense.
The consistency of propolis depends on temperature, it changes in time. Below 15°C, propolis is hard, brittle; at a higher temperature, especially above 30°C, it becomes plastic, soft. Freshly plucked propolis is sticky, gluey; with time, under the influence of sunlight, hardens and becomes brittle. When heated propolis gradually softens. It becomes fluid usually when passes 64-69°C (no clear temperature boundary is determined).
The composition of the bee glue is not similar and depends on the location of the bee family, on average, propolis contains approximately:
- Up to 55 % of resins and balms;
- 10 % of essential oils;
- 30 % of wax;
- Up to 5 % of pollen and aromatic substances.
- Crystalline compounds (flavanol and flavone, isovaniline, acacetin, camphire, chrysin, tetrachrisine, pinocenebrin and others)
- Organic acids (ferulic, coffee, benzoic and others), cinnamon alcohol, tannins, vanillin
- Vitamins А, С, Е, РР, В
- Sugars (glucose, fructose), bioflavonoids, which can only synthesize plants.
- From 5 to 12% of mechanical impurities.
Propolis is the best natural antibiotic.
It has strong antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. It is able to effectively destroy viruses, various bacteria and fungi.
But everyone knows that bacteria and viruses mutate, adapt to any medicine. Over time, they acquire the genetic code of the antibiotic, and the medicine becomes food for them. However, there are no bacteria that could adjust to propolis. Scientists have done a lot of research, but received only negative results.
Flavonoids, which are contained in propolis, help in the treatment of skin diseases, inflammation of the joints and mucous membranes. They help strengthen connective tissue and vessel walls. In addition, propolis has many other useful properties:
- relieves painful sensations;
- increases cellular respiration;
- removes toxic substances from the body;
- increases adrenaline consumption in the blood;
- neutralizes free radicals;
- rejuvenates the body;
- helps to get rid of cholesterol;
- normalizes metabolism;
- heals wounds on the skin and regenerates affected tissue cells.
Thanks to such valuable abilities, it is widely used both in scientific medicine and in the treatment of folk methods. Drugs made from propolis, help get rid of many diseases:
- flu, cold;
- diphtheria, scarlet fever;
- bronchitis, pneumonia;
- meteorisms, gastritis, colitis;
- eczema, rash and mycosis;
- nephritis, cystitis, prostatitis;
- tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis;
In addition, a useful natural product is used for burns, various injuries and frostbite. The natural elements, contained in it significantly increase the body's defenses, improving the functioning of the immune system.
Very often, propolis is used for toothaches and other dental problems. It is able to stop the development of malignant tumors and is effectively used as an additional means for complex treatment of cancerous tumors.
Contraindications to the use of this adhesive substance are limited only by the presence of an allergic reaction to the product. When rashes, itching on the skin, which are sometimes accompanied by headaches, weakness and fever, the reception of propolis should be stopped.
Alcoholate is prepared to get maximum benefit from it.
Clean glue before preparation should be dried, and then extracted with alcohols with a strength of 70%.
100 ml of alcohol is heated to a temperature of 50-60 degrees. This can be done on a water bath. Immediately after the required temperature is reached, pour 10 g of propolis, ground to a fine state. This proportion gives 10% tincture. By increasing the amount of dry powder respectively grows the concentrations.
Stir the mixture until smooth. Remove from heat and wait for natural cooling. Then carefully filter.
The tincture is poured into dark dishes, sealed and stored in a refrigerator.